Chihuahua

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Description:  Chihuahuas are very small dogs, and are the smallest breed recognized by some kennel clubs.[9] There are two main varieties recognized by kennel clubs, the short-haired and the long-haired.[9] There is a second varietal split as well, having to do with the shape and size of the dog’s head. These two descriptive classifications are “apple head” and “deer head”, but only the apple head is conformationally correct. The body is longer than it is tall. The head is well-rounded, apple in shape and the muzzle is short and pointed with a well-defined stop. Puppies have a soft spot on the top of the skull called a “molera,” which usually closes by adulthood. The large, round eyes are set well apart and are dark, ruby, and may be lighter in white dogs. The erect ears are large. Dewclaws may be removed. The tail is long, sickle-shaped and either curled over the back or to the side. The coat can be short, long and wavy or flat. All colors, both solid, marked or splashed are accepted. Colors include, but are not limited to, black, white, chestnut, fawn, sand, silver, sable, steel blue, black & tan and parti-color.

Temperament:  Chihuahua’s enjoy affection. Brave, cheerful and agile, Chihuahuas can be strong-willed without proper human leadership. They are loyal and become attached to their owners. Some like to lick their owner’s faces. Tempered Chihuahuas can be easily provoked to attack, and are therefore generally unsuitable for homes with small children. The breed tends to be fiercely loyal to one particular guardian and in some cases may become over protective of the person, especially around other people or animals. They do not always get along with other breeds.

Health: This breed requires expert veterinary attention in areas such as birthing and dental care. Chihuahuas are also prone to some genetic anomalies, often neurological ones, such as epilepsy and seizure disorders. Many Chihuahuas have molleras, or a soft spot in their skulls, and they are the only breed of dog to be born with an incomplete skull. This is not a defect; it is a normal adaptation facilitating the passage through the birth canal and growth and development of the domed type of forehead. The molera is predominant in the rounder heads often and is present in nearly all Chihuahua puppies. The molera fills in with age, but great care needs to be taken during the first six months until the skull is fully formed. Some moleras do not close completely and if particularly large will require extra care to prevent injury. Many veterinarians are not familiar with Chihuahuas as a breed and mistakenly confuse a molera with hydrocephalus. 

Chihuahuas can also be at risk for hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, which is especially dangerous for puppies. Left unattended, hypoglycemia can lead to coma and death but can be avoided with frequent feedings, especially for chihuahuas who are younger, smaller or leaner. Chihuahua guardians should have a simple sugar supplement on hand to use in emergencies, such as Nutri-Cal, Karo syrup and honey. These supplements can be rubbed on the gums and roof of the mouth to rapidly raise the blood sugar level. Signs of hypoglycemia include lethargy, sleepiness, low energy, uncoordinated walking, unfocused eyes and spasms of the neck muscles or head pulling back or to the side, fainting and seizures. Chihuahuas have a tendency to tremble or shiver when stressed, excited or cold. Chihuahuas, especially the short-coat variety, are less tolerant of cold than larger breeds, and may require a sweater or boots in cold weather. They will seek warmth in sunshine, under blankets, or on furniture, human laps or the back of a larger dog. Chihuahuas have a notorious problem with dental issues. Dental care is a must for these little creatures. Over-feeding and insufficient exercise can result in an overweight Chihuahua. Overweight Chihuahuas are susceptible to increased rates of joint injuries, tracheal collapse, chronic bronchitis, and shortened life span. 

Size: Weights ranges 2-6 pounds for both Male and females

Height ranges from 6-10 inches tall for both male and females

Grooming: The smooth, shorthaired coat should be gently brushed occasionally or simply wiped over with a damp cloth. The long coat should be brushed daily with a soft bristle brush. Bathe both types about once per month, taking care not to get water in the ears. Check the ears regularly and keep the nails trimmed. This breed is an average shedder.

Lifespan: Chihuahua usually live to be about 15-20 years old

Exercise: Although it is tempting to carry these dainty creatures about, these are active little dogs that need a daily walk. Play can take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfill their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display a wide array of behavior problems, as well as neurotic issues. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe open area off lead, such as a large, fenced-in yard.

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Standard poodle

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History:  

The poodle is believed to have originated in Germany,[1] where it was known as the PudelhundPudel(cognate with the English word “puddle”), is derived from the Low German verb meaning “to splash about”, and the word Hund in German means “dog” (cognate with “hound”). The breed was standardized in France, where it was commonly used as a water retriever.[5] Due to the breed’s popularity in France, it became established as its national breed.[1]

The European mainland had known the poodle long before it was brought to England. Drawings by German artist Albrecht Dürer established the popular image of the breed in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was the principal pet dog of the late 18th century in Spain, as shown by the paintings of the Spanish artist Francisco Goya. France had toy poodles as pampered favorites during the reign of Louis XVI at about the same period.[6]

The poodle has been bred in at least three sizes, including StandardMiniature, and Toy. According to the American Kennel Club, the Standard Poodle is the oldest of the three varieties,[7] and was later bred down to the miniature and toy sizes. Despite the Standard Poodle’s claim to greater age than the other varieties, some evidence shows the smaller types developed only a short time after the breed assumed the general type by which it is recognized today. The smallest, or Toy variety, was developed in England in the 18th century.

Description: The Standard Poodle is a medium- to large-sized dog. When groomed to show dog standards the body is meant to give off a square appearance. It is approximately the same length as the height at the withers. The skull is moderately rounded with a slight but definite stop. It has a long, straight muzzle. The dark, oval-shaped eyes are set somewhat far apart and are black or brown. The ears hang close to the head and are long and flat. Both the front and back legs are in proportion with the size of the dog. The topline is level. The tail is set and carried high. It is sometimes docked to half its length or less to make the dog look more balanced. Dewclaws may be removed. The oval-shaped feet are rather small and the toes are arched. The coat is either curly or corded. It comes in all solid colors including black, blue, silver, gray, cream, apricot, red, white, brown or café-au-lait. While it does not make the written show standard, some breeders are breeding parti-colored Poodles. The poodle is an active, intelligent and elegant dog, squarely built, and well proportioned. 

Grooming:  Extensive grooming is needed if the dog is to be shown. Poodles must be bathed regularly and clipped every six to eight weeks. Clean and check the ears frequently for wax or mites or infection and pull out hairs growing inside the ear canal. The teeth need regular scaling. Since the coat does not shed it needs to be clipped. There are several different types of Poodle clips. The most common for pet owners is an easy care clip called a “pet clip,” “puppy clip” or “lamb clip,” where the coat is cut short all over the body. Popular show clips are the English saddle and the Continental clip, where the rear half of the body is shaved, bracelets are left around the ankles, and pom-poms are left on the tails and hips. The AKC standard allows for a dog under a year old to be shown in a show-style puppy clip which has special requirements such as a pom-pom on the end of the tail. Other clip styles are the modified continental clip, town and country clip, kennel or utility clip, summer clip, and the Miami of bikini clip. Poodles shed little to no hair and are good for allergy sufferers.

Size:  A standard Poodles height is 15 inches or more. males weigh between 45-70 pound and females weigh 45-60 pounds.

Temperament:  The Standard Poodle is proud, graceful, noble, good-natured, enjoyable and cheerful. This highly intelligent dog is one of the most trainable breeds. Some can be trained to hunt. The Standard Poodle is generally lower energy and often calmer than the smaller varieties of Poodles, but will become high strung if you do not give it the proper amount and type of exercise. It is sensitive to the tone of one’s voice and will not listen if it senses that it is stronger minded than its owner, however it will also not respond well to harsh discipline. Owners need to be calm, yet possess an air of natural authority. It are not the type of dog to live outside in a kennel, as it enjoys being with its owners and dislikes being alone. It is generally friendly toward strangers, and is excellent with children. The Standard Poodle is good with other dogs. Some can make good guard dogs. Make sure you are this dog’s firm, consistent, confident pack leader, providing daily pack walks to avoid separation anxiety and other unwanted behavior issues.

Exercise:  The Standard Poodle needs to be taken on a daily walk. Although they adore water and love to go for walks, Poodles are not demanding as far as exercise goes, so long as they get their walk in. They however, will keep in better spirits and be fitter if given regular opportunities to run and play off the leash in a safe area. The Standard retains its sporting instincts, has great stamina, and needs more activity than the smaller varieties.

Life Expectancy: Standard poodles life expectancy is 12-15 years.

Health:  A long-lived breed, Poodles are, nevertheless, subject to many genetic diseases. Runny eyes, cataracts and progressive retinal atrophy, which may cause blindness. Allergies and skin conditions are common, possibly due to unskilled use of clippers or allergies to shampoo and/or color reinforcer. Hip dysplasia and ear infections are also common. They are prone to Von Willebrand’s Disease. Brown Poodles tend to become prematurely gray. Prone to bloat, so it is wise to feed your Standard 2-3 small meals a day, rather than one large one.

Cockapoo

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History:  

A Cockapoo can be the result of mating either the American Cocker Spaniel or English Cocker Spaniel with a Poodle. They have been known in the United States since the 1950s. The Cockapoo is not very well recognized.

Health:

Not all Cockapoos will get any or all of these diseases, but
it’s important to be aware of them if you’re considering this breed. Cataracts
Patellar Luxation
Hip Dysplasia
Allergies
Liver Disease
Ear Infections

If you’re buying a puppy, find a good breeder who will show you health clearances for both your puppy’s parents. Health clearances prove that a dog has been tested for and cleared of a particular condition.

In Cockapoos, you should expect to see health clearances from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) for hip dysplasia (with a score of fair or better), elbow dysplasia, hypothyroidism, and von Willebrand’s disease; from Auburn University for thrombopathia; and from the Canine Eye Registry Foundation (CERF) certifying that eyes are normal. You can confirm health clearances by checking the OFA web site (offa.org).

Health clearances are not issued to dogs younger than 2 years of age. That’s because some health problems don’t appear until a dog reaches full maturity. For this reason, it’s often recommended that dogs not be bred until they are two or three years old.

Size

  • The Teacup Toy is less than 6 pounds in weight and less than 10 inches in height.
  • The Toy Cockapoo can reach 10 inches in height but has a sturdier build, the bigger ones tipping the scales at just under 12 pounds.
  • The Miniature Cockapoo weighs 13 to 18 pounds and ranges between 11 and 14 inches high.
  • The Standard or Maxi Cockapoo should weigh more than 19 pounds and be at least 15 inches in height

Personality

Intelligent and easy to please, the Cockapoo was established as a companion dog. They’re friendly and happy, happy, happy. He has an outgoing nature and usually gets along with everyone. Depending on his temperament, they can be active or they can simply enjoy snuggling up on the couch with you.

They have the intelligence of Poodles forebears but also the sweet disposition of his Cocker Spaniel ancestry. If the parents don’t have the loving quality that is expected in a Cockapoo, then their offspring won’t either.

Like every dog, the Cockapoo needs early socialization — exposure to many different people, sights, sounds, and experiences — when they’re young. Socialization helps ensure that your Cockapoo puppy grows up to be a well-rounded dog.

They prefer, always, to be with their family and can suffer from separation anxiety when left alone for too long. They can be easy to train, though that’s dependent on the parents’ temperament. Positive reinforcement is the best way to train a Cockapoo; They can achieve high levels of obedience with time and patience.

Care

Most Cockapoos have a moderate level of energy, but that doesn’t mean they’ll laze around all day. They enjoy a good walk — and need it to keep them from becomingoverweight. The best type of exercise, though, is a good play session in the backyard. Expect him to need at least 15 minutes of exercise every day.

The Cockapoo is an adaptable breed. He can live in an apartment, though the smaller varieties seem to do better there than do the Maxi or Standard Cockapoos. None of them should live outdoors or in kennels, since they’ve been bred to be companion dogs. They thrive when with their family and can suffer from separation anxiety when left for long periods of time — and that can lead to excessive barking and todestructive behavior.

Crate training benefits every dog and is a kind way to ensure that your Cockapoo doesn’t have accidents in the house or get into things he shouldn’t. A crate is also a place where he can retreat for a nap. Crate training at a young age will also help your Cockapoo accept confinement if he ever needs to be boarded or hospitalized.

Don’t stick your Cockapoo in a crate all day long, however. It’s not a jail, and he shouldn’t spend more than a few hours at a time in it except when he’s sleeping at night (although he would much prefer your bed). Cockapoos are people dogs, and they aren’t meant to spend their lives locked up in a crate or kennel.

Coat, color and grooming 

The Cockapoo has a single, long coat that can range from straight to loose curls, but it shouldn’t be kinky. Cockapoos can be found in all the colors and color combinations that are seen in both Cocker Spaniels and Poodles — a more rich variety of coat colors than is usual in many other breeds.

The Cockapoo is usually seen au naturel, but many people like to clip the coat. However, it should only be trimmed to two to three inches in length. Hair around the eyes should be trimmed to allow visibility, so he’s not doing an impression of an Old English Sheepdog. The coat should be brushed daily.

Although it’s different for every Cockapoo, a puppy resulting from a multigenerational breeding is supposed to be odorless and nonshedding (although “nonshedding” is a fantasy, since every dog on the planet sheds at least a tiny bit). To retain coat oils and health, he only need be bathed when absolutely necessary.

Because his floppy Cocker ears block air circulation, the ears must be checked and cleaned weekly to prevent ear infections. Gently wipe out the ear — only the part you can see! — with a cotton ball moistened with a cleaning solution recommended by your veterinarian. (Don’t stick cotton swabs or anything else into the ear canal, because that could damage it.) Your Cockapoo may have an ear infection if the inside of the ear smells bad, looks red or seems tender, or he frequently shakes his head or scratches at his ear.

Brush your Cockapoo’s teeth at least two or three times a week to remove tartar buildup and the bacteria that lurk inside it. Daily brushing is even better if you want to prevent gum disease and bad breath.

Trim nails once or twice a month if your dog doesn’t wear them down naturally to prevent painful tears and other problems. If you can hear them clicking on the floor, they’re too long. Dog toenails have blood vessels in them, and if you cut too far you can cause bleeding — and your dog may not cooperate the next time he sees the nail clippers come out. So, if you’re not experienced trimming dog nails, ask a vet or groomer for pointers.

Begin accustoming your Cockapoo to being brushed and examined when he’s a puppy. Handle his paws frequently — dogs are touchy about their feet — and look inside his mouth. Make grooming a positive experience filled with praise and rewards, and you’ll lay the groundwork for easy veterinary exams and other handling when he’s an adult.

As you groom, check for sores, rashes, or signs of infection such as redness, tenderness, or inflammation on the skin, in the nose, mouth, and eyes, and on the feet. Eyes should be clear, with no redness or discharge. Your careful weekly exam will help you spot potential health problems early.

Lifespan

A Cockapoo’s lifespan is 12 to 15 years.

Neapolitan Mastiff

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History:  The Neapolitan Mastiff is an estate guard dog from Italy. The breed traces its roots to the dogs of war used by the Roman Army. The breed then existed on estates and farms across Italy for the past two millennia, known as the “big dog of the little man” — the extraordinary dog of the ordinary man.The Neapolitan Mastiff is an estate guard dog from Italy. The breed traces its roots to the dogs of war used by the Roman Army. The breed then existed on estates and farms across Italy for the past two millennia, known as the “big dog of the little man” — the extraordinary dog of the ordinary man.

Over the centuries, breeders of the Mastino in the Neapolitan area of southern Italy focused on breeding guards for the homes and estate. They created a breed that retained the giant size, heavy, loose skin, and dewlap. This was an animal, which was a stay-at-home type, and was good with the family. It was bred to detect unwanted intruders and to deter them from the property under their care. Indeed, many say that the Neapolitan Mastiff’s unique type was developed purposely as an alarmingly ugly dog whose looks alone were enough to deter any intruder.

Description:  The Neapolitan Mastiff is a serious, powerful dog. The body of this massive, rather rectangular looking dog has abundant, hanging wrinkles and folds on the head and a very large dewlap. The wide, flat head is large in comparison to the rest of the body. The muzzle is 1/3 the length of the head and is as broad as it is long with a well-defined stop. The large nose has well-open nostrils and a color that coordinates with the coat. The teeth meet in a scissors, pincer or slight undershot bite. The deep-set eyes are almost covered by the dropping upper lids and come in amber to brown, depending on the coat color. Puppies begin life with blue eyes, which later darken. The ears may be cropped or left natural. Many owners opt out of docking and cropping, preferring the natural look, as it is painful for the dog. The tail is carried straight up and curves over the back. In dogs that are shown in the AKC front dewclaws are not removed. The round feet are large with well-arched toes. The straight, dense, short coat comes in gray, blue, black, chocolate, mahogany and tawny, sometimes with brindle and white markings. A little white is permitted on the chest and toes. No white should be on the face. Chocolate dogs are rare.

Size:  Heights: Males 26-30 inches Females 24 – 28 inches

Weight: Up to 165 pounds but the largest male Neapolitans may be nearly 200 pounds.

Grooming:  This breed is easy to groom. Remove loose, dead hair with a rubber brush. This breed is an average shedder.

Health:  Prone to cherry eye, hip dysplasia, bloat, pano-ostiosis (joint pain from growth can occur at 4-18 months and usually goes away on its own). Pups are usually born via caesarian section.

Lifespan:  Like most giant breeds, the Neapolitan Mastiff has a relatively short life expectancy. UK breed club surveys puts the average at 7 years, with 1 in 6 living to 9 years or more.

Exercise:  Adult Neapolitan Mastiffs need a great deal of exercise. They should be taken on daily, long walks at least twice a day. While out on the walk the dog must be made to heel beside or behind the person holding the lead, as in a dog’s mind the leader leads the way, and that leader needs to be the human. Teach your dog to enter and exit all door and gateways after the human.

Temperament:  The Neapolitan Mastiff is not a breed for everyone. This breed looks a bit intimidating, but is actually affectionate, calm, peaceful and loving. They enjoy family and friends. This breed is a heavy drooler, particularly in hot weather or after getting a drink. Males may drool more than females. They are very keen to their owners’ commands. Intelligent, very protective, courageous, serious and mild-mannered. Generally quiet, they tend to only bark when necessary. They can be reserved with strangers; socialize them well with people, places, sounds and animals. These dogs are usually very loving with children, provided the children know how to display leadership skills. A Neo can get along well with non-canine petsif raised with them from puppyhood and/or properly socialized. Obedience training is very important. Teach them to heel on a lead and to go in and out door and gateways after the humans. This breed needs a dominant owner who understands and is capable of controlling them properly. They will be easiest if this is established when the dog is still a puppy, but it is still possible to communicate with an adult Neo that the human is in charge. Children should be taught how to be pack leaders. Socialize this breed while they are young. This is a natural guard dog and protection training is not necessary. You cannot breed out the guard in the dog, no matter how submissive they become. If they sense there is a threat to the home they will react unless the owner is there and tells them everything is OK. Be sure you are consistent in approach and do not keep repeating commands the dog has failed to obey. If they are not listening, try a different approach, making sure you are in a confident state of mind. Neos will not listen to meek owners. These are not dogs for beginners, but it is an exaggeration to describe them as difficult in their association with others. A calm handler with natural leadership will achieve the best results. With comprehensive training and an experienced, dominant owner, the Neapolitan Mastiff can be a wonderful family pet. This breed has a high pain tolerance. Neos that do not have a firm, confident, consistent owner who provides them with daily pack walks to release mental and physical exercise will become willfulover-protective and dog aggressive. When correcting this dog, the owner’s correction must match the dog’s level of intensity, and the timing of the correction must be precise.

http://www.akc.org/dog-breeds/neapolitan-mastiff/detail/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neapolitan_Mastiff

http://www.dogbreedinfo.com/neapolitanmastiff.htm